Calculating coordination numbers¶
In this example, we will read in a configuration from an MD simulation and then calculate the coordination number distribution.
import pyscal.core as pc import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
Read in a file¶
The first step is setting up a system. We can create atoms and simulation box using the
pyscal.crystal_structures module. Let us start by importing the module.
import pyscal.crystal_structures as pcs
atoms, box = pcs.make_crystal('bcc', lattice_constant= 4.00, repetitions=[6,6,6])
The above function creates an bcc crystal of 6x6x6 unit cells with a lattice constant of 4.00 along with a simulation box that encloses the particles. We can then create a
System and assign the atoms and box to it.
sys = pc.System() sys.atoms = atoms sys.box = box
We start by calculating the neighbors of each atom in the system. There are two ways to do this, using a
cutoff method and using a
voronoi polyhedra method. We will try with both of them. First we try with cutoff system - which has three sub options. We will check each of them in detail.
Cutoff method takes cutoff distance value and finds all atoms within the cutoff distance of the host atom.
Now lets get all the atoms.
atoms = sys.atoms
let us try accessing the coordination number of an atom
As we would expect for a bcc type lattice, we see that the atom has 14 neighbors (8 in the first shell and 6 in the second). Lets try a more interesting example by reading in a bcc system with thermal vibrations. Thermal vibrations lead to distortion in atomic positions, and hence there will be a distribution of coordination numbers.
sys = pc.System() sys.read_inputfile('conf.dump') sys.find_neighbors(method='cutoff', cutoff=3.6) atoms = sys.atoms
We can loop over all atoms and create a histogram of the results
coord = [atom.coordination for atom in atoms]
Now lets plot and see the results
nos, counts = np.unique(coord, return_counts=True) plt.bar(nos, counts, color="#AD1457") plt.ylabel("density") plt.xlabel("coordination number") plt.title("Cutoff method")
Text(0.5, 1.0, 'Cutoff method')
Adaptive cutoff methods¶
pyscal also has adaptive cutoff methods implemented. These methods remove the restriction on having the same cutoff. A distinct cutoff is selected for each atom during runtime.
pyscal uses two distinct algorithms to do this -
adaptive. Please check the documentation for a explanation of these algorithms. For the purpose of this example, we will use the
sys.find_neighbors(method='cutoff', cutoff='adaptive', padding=1.5) atoms = sys.atoms coord = [atom.coordination for atom in atoms]
Now lets plot
nos, counts = np.unique(coord, return_counts=True) plt.bar(nos, counts, color="#AD1457") plt.ylabel("density") plt.xlabel("coordination number") plt.title("Cutoff adaptive method")
Text(0.5, 1.0, 'Cutoff adaptive method')
The adaptive method also gives similar results!
Voronoi method calculates the voronoi polyhedra of all atoms. Any atom that shares a voronoi face area with the host atom are considered neighbors. Voronoi polyhedra is calculated using the Voro++ code. However, you dont need to install this specifically as it is linked to pyscal.
Once again, let us get all atoms and find their coordination
atoms = sys.atoms coord = [atom.coordination for atom in atoms]
And visualise the results
nos, counts = np.unique(coord, return_counts=True) plt.bar(nos, counts, color="#AD1457") plt.ylabel("density") plt.xlabel("coordination number") plt.title("Voronoi method")
Text(0.5, 1.0, 'Voronoi method')
All methods find the coordination number, and the results are comparable. Cutoff method is very sensitive to the choice of cutoff radius, but voronoi method can slightly overestimate the neighbors due to thermal vibrations.